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" Ante at 478 U. S. 732 734; post at 478 U. S. 764 765. Rather, I am convinced that the Comptroller General must be characterized as an agent of Congress because of his longstanding statutory responsibilities; that the powers assigned to him under the Gramm Rudman Hollings Act require him to make policy that will bind the Nation; and that, when Congress, or a component or an agent of Congress seeks to make policy that will bind the Nation, it must follow the procedures mandated by Article I of the Constitution through passage by both Houses and presentment to the President. In short, Congress may not exercise its fundamental power to formulate national policy by delegating that power to one of its two Houses, to a legislative committee, or to an individual agent of the Congress such as the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate, or the Director of the Congressional Budget Office. INS v. Chadha, 462 U. S. 919 1983.

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Secondly, it includes all the other non governmental actors that have been defined as being outside the world of NGOs. It is commonplace to refer to transnational companies, transnational criminals, transnational guerrillas and transnational terrorists. In global politics, it is rare for any reference to be made to transnational NGOs, presumably because an NGO's involvement in global politics ipso facto makes it transnational. The most difficult question about the independence of NGOs is whether they come under governmental influence. Individual governments do at times try to influence the NGO community in a particular field, by establishing NGOs that promote their policies. This has been recognized by quite common use of the acronym GONGO, to label a government organized NGO. Also, in more authoritarian societies, NGOs may find it very difficult to act independently and they may not receive acknowledgment from other political actors even when they are acting independently. Beyond these unusual situations, there is a widespread prejudice that government funding leads to government control. In the field of human rights, it would damage an NGO for such a perception to arise, so Amnesty International has strict rules that it will not accept direct government funding for normal activities. On the other hand, development and humanitarian relief NGOs need substantial resources, to run their operational programs, so most of them readily accept official funds. While these NGOs would like the security of a guaranteed budget for their administrative overheads, governments generally only want to support field costs for projects.

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"On the evidence based guidelines and policies side, explicit insistence on evidence of effectiveness was introduced by the American Cancer Society in 1980. The U. S. Preventive Services Task Force USPSTF began issuing guidelines for preventive interventions based on evidence based principles in 1984. In 1985, the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association applied strict evidence based criteria for covering new technologies. Beginning in 1987, specialty societies such as the American College of Physicians, and voluntary health organizations such as the American Heart Association, wrote many evidence based guidelines. In 1991, Kaiser Permanente, a managed care organization in the US, began an evidence based guidelines program. In 1991, Richard Smith wrote an editorial in the British Medical Journal and introduced the ideas of evidence based policies in the UK. In 1993, the Cochrane Collaboration created a network of 13 countries to produce systematic reviews and guidelines. In 1997, the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ, then known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, or AHCPR established Evidence based Practice Centers EPCs to produce evidence reports and technology assessments to support the development of guidelines. In the same year, a National Guideline Clearinghouse that followed the principles of evidence based policies was created by AHRQ, the AMA, and the American Association of Health Plans now America's Health Insurance Plans.

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Some research has shown evidence supporting the hypothesis, and this evidence is questioned by some researchers. Even when patients who decide their recovered memories are false retract their claims, they can suffer post traumatic stress disorder due to the trauma of illusory memories. The number of reported retractions is small when compared to the large number of actual child abuse cases. Are some experiences so horrific that the human brain seals them away, only to recall them years later?The concept of repressed memory, known by the diagnostic term dissociative amnesia, has long fueled controversy in psychiatry. During the 1980s, claims of childhood abuse based on recovered memories led to a spate of highly publicized court cases. A number of the supposed victims retracted their allegations in the early 1990s, admitting that they had been swayed by therapeutic techniques. Yet the scientific validity of dissociative amnesia has remained contested ground. In a recent study, professor of psychiatry Harrison Pope, co director of the Biological Psychiatry Lab at Harvard affiliated McLean Hospital, put repressed memory to the test of time. He reasoned that if dissociative amnesia were an innate capability of the brainakin to depression, hallucinations, anxiety, and dementiait would appear in written works throughout history. In collaboration with associate professor of psychiatry James Hudson, Michael Parker, a professor of English at the U. S.

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